A printing technique using a printing plate on which the printing elements are located above the white space so that when printing the white space elements of the paper do not touch. Letterpress forms are made of hard alloy or photopolymer.

Automated production:

  • Flexography — the main form of industrial letterpress printing nowadays. It is direct printing with quick-drying liquid inks, fixed on various (often flexible) materials, using flexible printing plates that can be installed on cylinders with a different circumference.
  • Typewriter — it can be attributed to any type of letterpress. Widely used in the XIX-XX centuries both in the office and in the home environment.
    The principle of operation of most typewriters is to apply characters to paper using special levers ending in pads with protruding metal letters. When you press the appropriate key, the lever strikes the ink-saturated ribbon, thus leaving an imprint of the letter on the input sheet of paper. Before printing the next character, the paper sheet is automatically shifted.
    In May 2011, the typewriter factory in Mumbai, owned by the Indian company Godrej and Boyce, closed, prompting several media reports to close the "last typewriter factory", which was soon disproved.
    In November 2012, the Brothers factory released a typewriter called "The Last One Made in the UK"; the machine was donated to the London's Science Museum.

Manual production:

  • Linocut — manual method for making letterpress forms on linoleum or similar materials.
  • Woodcut — a type of engraving on wood. The printing form (cliche) is performed by manual engraving. The woodcut image is imprinted from the flat surface of a wooden board covered with paint. Woodcut forms withstand up to 15 thousand prints.

A printing technique with the use of a printing plate on which the printing elements are recessed with respect to blanks. This feature of the technology provides the relief of image elements that protrude above the surface of the paper.

Automated production:

  • Rotational multisection roll and sheet printing machines.

Manual production:

Etching and its varieties:

  • Etched bar — the main way of etching. Creating an etched stroke includes the following steps: preparing the board; engraving (drawing with an etching needle on acid-resistant soil); etching; proof print and plate correction; print.
  • Aquatint — the print of the engraving in this manner resembles a drawing with watercolors; this similarity determined the origin of the name.
  • Резерваж — drawing (with special or ordinary ink, as well as gouache or ink with sugar added), applied with a pen or brush directly on a smooth surface of the metal, is coated with acid-resistant soil. The printing plate is dipped in water. Swollen, ink lifts the soil particles lying above them, which are easily removed and expose the metal. As a result of etching, an engraving resembling a sketch with a pen or drawing with a brush is obtained.
  • Lavis
    Invented by a French artist of the XVIII century. Jean-Baptiste Le Prince. The image is applied directly to the board with a brush moistened with acid; when printing, ink is printed into etched recesses. Engravings using the Lavis technique resemble a brush painting with a wash.
  • Soft varnish
    Ordinary etching soil is mixed with fat, which makes it soft and easily lags behind; the primed printing plate is coated with grainy paper, which is applied with a hard pencil. From the pressure of the pencil, soil particles, adhering to the paper in accordance with the lines of the picture, after which the printing form is etched. An engraving made using the soft varnish technique is characterized by a picturesque, grainy stroke that conveys the specifics of the drawing with a pencil or charcoal.
  • Dry needling
    A kind of in-depth engraving on metal, based on scratching strokes with a needle. Engravings made using the “dry needle” technique are characterized by velvety strokes (somewhat bringing the “dry needle” closer to the drawing), which arises due to burrs left by the needle — the so-called barbs.
  • Mezzoting
    type of engraving on metal. The main fundamental difference from other etching styles is not the creation of a system of recesses - strokes and dots, but the smoothing of bright spots on a grained board. The effects achieved by mezzo-tinto cannot be obtained by other “tone” manners. In other words, the image required in the print is created due to the different gradation of light areas on a black background. The pre-polished surface of the metal board is subjected to granulation - it is coated with the help of a lapidary with many tiny recesses, acquiring a characteristic roughness. The graining is a long and laborious process. When printing, such a board gives a solid black tone. There are other methods of granulation of the board including due to etching.
  • Pencil Manner
    A kind of dashed manner of in-depth engraving on metal, imitating a drawing with a pencil, charcoal, sanguine or pastel. The effects of the pencil manner are achieved by applying fine-grained strokes and spots on the primed board (using roulettes or embossing), followed by etching.
  • Dotter Manner
    Type of engraving on metal. Images are created using shallow recesses in the form of various depths and sizes of dots applied by punches, needles, etc. on the surface of a metal plate coated with acid-resistant varnish. Engravings created in a dotted manner are distinguished by the softness of black and white gradations.
  • Engraving
    Recessed elements of the printing form are created (cut) with the help of a burin. It came from the ornaments carving of the various metal products. In the Middle Ages, there was a widespread method of filling lines incised into the metal with a colored composition, mainly niello.

Printing technique with the use of forms on which printing and white space elements are located in the same plane and differ only in physicochemical properties.

Automated production:

  • Offset printing — a printing method in which the ink from a printing form is transferred under pressure to an intermediate elastic surface of a rubber web, and from it to paper or other printing material. The principle of the offset printing was proposed in 1905 in the USA when the first offset printing machine was created. Usually, the name "offset printing ”combines printing processes with flat printing forms, which are based on the selective wetting of the printing elements with ink, and whitespace with an aqueous solution, which is achieved due to the various molecular-surface characteristics of individual sections of the form. In the printing process, the mold is alternately wetted with an aqueous solution and rolled up with paint, after which it is injected under pressure into contact with the surface of the rubber plate, and the latter is brought into contact with the paper and an imprint is obtained.
  • Pad Printing — the elastic intermediate element that transfers the image (called a “tampon” or “roller”) allows you to transfer the image from printing plates of intaglio, flat, letterpress and screen printing on the surface of almost any shape.
  • Iris Printing — printing is carried out by several inks simultaneously from one ink box, divided by partitions, from one printing form when using rolling rollers with a fixed axial movement. The iris effect can be realized only when using highly viscous inks, therefore sheet-fed offset machines are equipped with iris ink machines.

Manual production:

  • Lithography — The drawing was applied to the surface of the polished stone with a bold pencil, after which the surface of the printing plate was treated with nitric acid. The acid could affect only areas of stone free of fat, resulting in the formation of places that could hold water. This is due to the fact that under the influence of nitric acid the stone is freed from carbon dioxide and, while becoming porous, retains water, and the areas of the stone covered with a thick pencil ... perceived fats, and, consequently, printing ink.
  • Chromolithography — lithographic multicolor print. Subsequently, the Tromonin method was called chromolithography. To obtain a multi-color print, the number of forms was made according to the number of colors. To do this, it was necessary to initially decompose the multi-color image into its individual colors, which was done by eye by a master chromolithograph. For each of the stones, the image was translated according to the outline. Abris - the boundaries of the transition of color tones of the image, applied to a transparent material (tracing paper) and then transferred to a lithographic stone. Now lithography is used as a special art form for printing stamps.

A printing technique that uses a printing form, which is a grid (stencil), through the cells of the printing elements of which, using a squeegee, the ink is pressed. There are varieties: classic screen and rotator printing (see risography).

Automated production:

  • Screen Printing — Printing on automatic and semi-automatic screen printing machines, flat or carousel type.
  • Risography — a printing device -- screen printing method. Sometimes it is called a “risograph”, after the name of the company Riso, specializing in the production of these devices.
    The original to be copied is placed in the built-in duplicator scanner. Inside the machine, a form is automatically created before printing. The form is automatically pulled onto the printing cylinder (drum). , The ink enters from the inside of the drum, it impregnates the inner layer of the master film and is applied to the paper through holes in the mold.

Manual production:

  • Silk Screen Printing — printing on manual screen printing machines.

The process related to the finishing of products. Produced on manual, semi-automatic and automatic embossing presses, based on hot or cold pressing of metalized or pigment foil or polymer film.

Industrial production:

  • Foil Stamping — a foil is placed and pressed between the heated cliche and the material (paper, leather, plastic, etc.). Under the action of a heated cliché, the foil lags behind the carrier film and is fixed with an adhesive layer on the surface of the material.
  • Blind Embossing — single cliche embossing.
  • Hot Stamping — a relief made by compressing the material between the cliche for convex (matrix) and punch (counter-matrix, counterpart). The image becomes convex.
  • Hot stamping with foil — usually foil is pressed first, and then the image is given relief.

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